*2019 NECO HISTORY ANSWERS*
According to one traditional account, the original people and founders of the Benin Empire, the Bini (or Edo people), were initially ruled by the Ogisos (Kings of the Sky). The city of Ibinu (later called Benin City) was founded in 1180 C.E.
About 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers of the empire. On the death of the last Ogiso, his son and heir apparent Ekaladerhan was banished from Benin as a result of one of the Queens changing the message from the oracle to the Ogiso. Ekaladerhan was a powerful warrior and well loved Prince. On leaving Benin he travelled to the west of the present day Nigeria to the land of the Yorubas. At that time the Yoruba oracle said that their King will come out of the forest and when Ekaladerhan arrived at Ife, he was received as a King.
He changed his name to Imadoduwa meaning “I did not misplace my royalty” and became The Great Oduduwa of The Yoruba Land. On the death of his father, the last Ogiso, a group of Benin Chiefs led by Chief Oliha came to Ife, pleading with him to come back to Benin to ascend the throne. Oduduwa’s reply was that a King cannot leave his Kingdom but he had seven sons and would ask one of them to go back to Benin to rule as the next King.
Oranmiyan, the son of Ekaladerhan aka Oduduwa, agreed to go to Benin. He spent some years in Benin and came back to Ife after his wife gave birth to a son named Eweka. Eweka I became the first Oba of Benin. In 1440, Oba Ewuare (Ewuare the Great) came to power and turned the city-state into an empire. Around 1470, he named the new state Edo.
6) Discuss the factors that led to the rise of old oyo empire
(i)Executive Powers; The Oba’s were the chief administrators of the Yoruba states; they exercised executive powers over all the people of the Empire. Oba’s pay tribute to the Alaafin in respect to their ancestral home, and those tributes were also a source of wealth to the empire.
(ii)Legislative Powers; The powers of the Alaafin were checked by a group of “Kingmakers” called the Oyomesi. They exercised legislative functions and was headed by the Bashorun. The Bashorun plays a vital role in the formation of the empire, and has the power to impeach either the Alaafin of the Oba’s.
(iii)Judicial Powers; Oyo Empire was very decentralized in nature and powers were distributed among several bodies to prevent authoritarianism. The powers of the Oyomesi were in turn, checked by the presence of the Ogboni Fraternity. The Ogboni was considered to be very scared and commonly referred to as “The Mouthpiece of the Gods”; with their office headed by the Ifa Priest.
(iv)Early Period; It is pivotal to note that the rich culture of the Yoruba’s cut across the shores of Africa and even to Southern America. Oyo Empire was well known for it’s industrial productions in brass making. Because of its wealth and military skills, Old Oyo was – and still remains – the most important and authoritative faction of all early Yoruba principalities.
(i)It was export import oriented economy colonial economy specialized in the production of raw material for the metropolitan industries and importation of manufactured goods to Africa.
(ii)Colonial economy was characterized by establishment of weak and small processing industries. The few factories that were established were for import substitution. This was because colonies had to remain in producers of raw materials.
(iii)Some of the colonies were mono-culture. They specialized in the production of one major commodity for example, Mauritius specialized in the production of sugar, Ghana produced cocoa and Liberia produced rubber.
(iv)Colonial production was based on coercion. The colonial economies were supering imposed and the Africans were forced to produce for export rather than for their own consumption.
(v)The colonial economy involved consumption of physical infrastructure such as road and railways in order to transport raw materials to the coast labourers to the plantation and mining centre.
In pursuing the goal of regional economic cooperation and development, Nigeria helped create ECOWAS, which seeks to harmonise trade and investment practices for its 16 West African member countries and ultimately to achieve a full customs union. Nigeria also has taken the lead in articulating the views of developing nations on the need for modification of the existing international economic order. Nigeria has played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts to end the civil war in Liberia and contributed the bulk of the ECOWAS peacekeeping forces sent there in 1990. Nigeria also has provided the bulk of troops for ECOMOG forces in Sierra Leone . Nigeria has enjoyed generally good relations with its immediate neighbours. In other words Nigeria had ratified the protocol, and would allow citizens of ECOWAS member states live and work in Nigeria without visas and work permits. However, only immigrants in six professional categories would be allowed.