*CIVIC EDUCATION OBJ*
1a.Justice is what we as a society regard as “right” based on our moral concepts of ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness, in other words, justice is the proper application of law.
1b the figure 1. Is called Lady justice and labeled part is explained Bellow
Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case’s support and opposition.
ii. Blindfold: Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status.
The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.
HIV is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, often called T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease.
AIDS is the most severe phase of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic infections.
*6b).* I) Fever.
Iv) Night sweats.
V) Muscle aches.
Vi) Sore throat.
Viii) Swollen lymph nodes
The rule of law has 3 main features:
1.The ‘absolute supremacy or predominance of regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power’. This aspect prevents anyone in the government from exercising arbitrary power, and it also prevents anyone from being punished for anything other than a breach of the law
2.Equality before the law
3.The “rule of law”, lastly, may be used as a formula for expressing the fact that with us the law of the constitution…[is] not the source but the consequence of the rights of individuals as defined and enforced by the courts; that, in short, the principles of private law have with us been by the action of the courts and Parliament so extended as to determine the position of the Crown and of its servants……..
*7b)* *i) Diplomatic immunity*
Diplomats and Ambassadors have immunity against the rule of law in the country they are serving. They are above the legislation of that country. For example, an envoy from the United Kingdom cannot be charged or tried in Nigeria. They have to be sent back to their country.
*ii) State of emergency and war*
In cases of conflict or situations which require the government to declare a state of emergency, the government enforces discretionary powers. And when the government exercises these powers, it denies people of their constitutional rights. People are restricted from carrying out their normal day to day activities and forced against their wish.
*Iii)* *Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance*
The level of poverty and illiteracy in Nigeria is also a limitation to the rule of law. A lot of people live in ignorance of their constitutional rights which makes it easy for people to infringe their rights.
*Iv) Delegation legislation*
Top government officials, especially in the executive branch, are granted some discretionary powers. This allows them to perform their duties efficiently. However, due to the fact that human beings are selfish and love power, this opens up the opportunity for them to use this privilege against citizens. It is most time referred to as the abuse of power. A government official can make lawful sanctions that abuse the rights of an individual or society when they are administered.
Political apathy is a feeling of disinterest in the sense of politics or apathy towards politics. It can consist of interest apathy, voter apathy, and information apathy.
– Political apathy causes the government to be carefree in its activities
– Political apathy leads to bad government
– Participations in elections: learning of biographies and political activity of candidates.
– Learning and defending people’s rights.
– Development of political culture and interest.
– Motivation of the people to improve their lives that depend on political situation in the country.
Civil societies are an organized group of people who
influence political decisions. Contrary to the wishes of the
government, they can also be referred to as a pressure group, i.e. a
group or organisation that tries to influence the opinions of ordinary
people and persuade the government to do something. These can
be done through lobbying, demonstration and propaganda through
the mass media in the interest of the populace.
IMPORTANCE OF CIVIL SOCIETIES
Civil societies carry out the following Function:
I) They protect and promote the interest of their people and
society at large;
II) They act as watchdogs over public administration and
Iii) They help to educate the populace on their political rights
on some government decisions;
iv) They usually offer useful suggestions and advice to
government at all levels.
V)They act as a link between the government and the people.