Define migration:Migration* is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.*

Explain four major types of migration

(i) Internal Migration – It is the moving within a state, country, or continent.

(ii) External Migration – It is the moving in a different state, country, or continent.

(iii) Population Transfer – It is when a government pushed or forces a large group of people out of a country or region. This is usually based on ethnicity or religion. It is also otherwise known as an forced migration or involuntary migration.

(iv) Impelled Migration – It is also called an imposed migration or reluctant migration. A group of people or an individual leaves a country or region because of unfavorable situations due to political, religious, social factors.

i-Increases productivity β€”Β When transportation improvements increase the accessibility of people and businesses to reach jobs, services, goods, and activities, productivity also increases
ii-Enhances job and labor force accessibility β€”Β Another economic benefit of transportation improvements is the resulting larger pool of employees available for the job market
iii-Enhances supply chain efficiency β€”Β When businesses are clustered together, it is easier and quicker for them to reach their suppliers and customers. This phenomenon has a positive impact on freight logistics and delivery scheduling. Easier access to needed supplies and materials and faster delivery times to customers can help lower transportation and inventory carrying costs while increasing both productivity and profitability.
Iv-Transportation revolution has therefore significantly improved accessibility of places and therefore bringing more developments and growth.Β 
V-Market areas therefore become even more extensive as transportation has improved. Similarly, supply areas have expanded. For instance, agricultural production has become more profitable and so wider areas of production are opened up from the central markets.

2b)The Technological Factor:

The technological characteristics of each major transport mode are considered together with a discussion of the effects of technological advances.

(iii) The Physical Factor:

This includes physiographic controls upon route selection, and geological and climatic influences.

(iv) The Economic Factor:

The structure and nature of transport costs are examined, together with service quality and methods of pricing and charging.

(v) Political and Social Factors:

These include political motives for transport facilities; government involvement in capital, monopolies competition, safety, working conditions and coordination between modes, transport as an employer and social consequences of transport developments.

Localisation of industries:-may be defined as the idea and practice of establishing many industries in a particular area for economic, social, geographical or political reasons


(i)leads to invention or innovations
(ii)Development of organised markets
(iii)creations of employment opportunity
(iv)provision of social Amenities

(i)lead to congestion
(ii)Escalate crime rate
(iii)it causes pollution
(iv)it causes uneven development

(i)increase in national income:-industrialization allows country to make optimal use of their scare resources. It increase quality and quantity of goods manufactured in that company which make larger contribution to GDP
(ii)High Standard of living:-in an industrialized society workers, labour is worth more in addition, because of higher productivity individual national income
(iii)Economic stability:- A nation that depends on the production and export of raw material alone can not achieve a rapid economic growth. Industrialization is the best way for providing economic stability
(iv)improvement in balance of payment(BOP):-Industrialization change the pattern of foreign trade in the country.

1. Providing livelihood to local communities
2. Generating income for the local government thereby directly contributing to its economy
3. Promoting a more efficient use of energy, saving people’s money
4. It increases the rate of foreign exchange which increase the revenue of the country

5b) inadequate capital;
– poor management;
– shortage of raw materials;
– poor infrastructure;
– political instability;
– law purchasing power;
– shortage of skilled labour;
– inadequate power supply;
– high cost of spare parts;
– restriction of foreign exchange;
– high taxation;
– labour unrest;

– poor quality industrial labour.

5b)1. Inadequate Infrastructure

For mining companies to run smoothly and efficiently, the basic amenities and infrastructures must be available in a reliable form.

Good roads are required for the safe and easy transportation of extracted minerals and also for the ease of movement of the heavy duty company vehicles and equipment.
Water is also required to run the mining process efficiently. Automated processes and clerical works require the presence of electricity. The epileptic condition of electricity in nigeria is one of those factors which is hindering the industrial sector, it is also a problem in the mining sector too

2. Insufficient Funding

Lack of capital is one of the factor which is hindering the small-scale and artisanal miners. These small scale and artisanal miners lack the required amount of capital to procure the necessary equipmnts required for a successful mining process.

The use of crude implements such as spade and hoe as what witnessed among the artisanal minersΒ  at a Cassiterite mining site in Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, will not yield much products compared with the input effort.

3. High Risk and health hazard

Mining is a process involving a greater amount of risk; over the years, there have been cases and records of mine explosions. The high riskiness of mining in Nigeria is due to the fact that the mineral Sector in Nigeria is mainly driven by the artisanal and small scale miners who embark on low technology and crude/traditional methods in their activities.

They are exposed to high risk from dangerous metals such as lead and radioactive waste. Cases of transcend of the limit considered healthy has been recorded in some mining locations in Nigeria.

4. Insufficient Geological Data

There is still a heavy reliance of the Nigerian mining sector on the geological data obtained about 50 years ago despite the fact that some geosciences data have been made available.

The department in the mining sector responsible for the research and collation of geological data should be worked on.

5. Lack of Well-Equipped Laboratory

Frequent research on mineral deposits found in the country will help uncover the various ways through which these minerals can be put to efficient use after extraction. It can also suggest the possible ways through which these minerals can be modified or optimum storage and handling conditions.

a)A good and promising geological data can go a long way to aid the approval of a business plan or release of funds by the government. Also, mining licenses issued by the Cadastre Office should be able to serve as collateral for loans, if supported by reliable information on the quality and grade of deposits.

b)In order for these researches to be successfully carried out, the laboratories must be fully equipped and staffed. The basics amenities such as electricity and water supply must be reliable too. Nigeria lacks these well-equipped laboratories hence the struggles and low development rate of the mining sector

c)The government needs to bring these miners into a legalized framework via making them real start-up miners and ensuring they pay government the right set of taxes and royalties.

d)securing the mining industries from

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