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(i) The cost
(ii) The target audience
(iii)Nature of the goods
(i)It increase profit
(ii) It provides information about features
(iii)It also stimulate demands
(iv)It helps I’m creating job opportunities
(i)improving the profitability of the firm.
(ii)Carrying out restriction of output ,
(iii)control of price,
(iv)allocation of market shares.
(i)They base their decisions on the full costs and benefits
(ii)They can be used to influence economic activity. To boost the country’s output, public corporations can be directly encouraged to increase their output.
(iii)In cases where it is practical to have only one firm in the industry, such as rail infrastructure, a public corporation would not abuse its market power.
(i)They can be difficult to manage and control. The large size of theorganisations may mean that time has to be spent on meetings and communicating with staff, slowing down decision making.
(ii)They may become inefficient, produce low quality products and charge relatively high prices, due to a lack of competition and the knowledge that they cannot go bankrupt.
(iii)They will need to be subsidized if they are loss making. The use of tax revenue to support them has an opportunity cost it could be used to spend on, say, training more teachers and nurses.
(i) The stock market helps to value the securities on the basis of demand and supply factors
(ii) Stock exchange is a reliable barometer to measure the economic condition of a country
(iii) Stock market provides ready market for sale and purchase of securities.
(iv) It ensures safety of Transactions
Debentures: These are documents which acknowlwdge a loan generally under the company seal, bearing a fixed rate of interest. It usually gives security for repayment of loan as well as the interest. It can also be described as a document setting out the terms of loan to a company; that is certificate of indebtedness. Holders of debentures have no voting right.
Bond: This is a security issued by the govenrment or it’s agency or private institution as a means of raising fund.
Shares: can be defined as the individual portion of company’s capitial, owned by share holders. It is the nterest which a share holder has in a company. In other words, a share is a unit of capital measured by a sum of money. A share also represents the mechanism by which the shareholders of a company can have limited liability.
Stock: This can be defined as the bundle of shares or mass of capital which can be transferred in fractional amount. They are always fully paid ,e.g it can be quoted per #100 nominal value.
(i)Provides Technical Support To Exporters
(ii)Simplifies Export Procedures
(iii)Provides Grants And Incentives
(iv)Simplifies Export Procedures
(v)Provides Exportable Products’ List
(i)Collect and revenue for the government by charging customs excise duties.
(ii)keep and analyze records of imported and exported goods and services.
(iii)Control bonded warehouses to ensure that duty is collected for imported dutiable goods before releasing them.
(iv)Supervise public health by arranging quarantine for animals, pets coming into the country thus controlling infectious disease.
(v)Supervise entrepots (re-export) trade to ensure that no duty is charged and collected on goods destined to another country.
Trading profit and loss account
Opening stock 20,000
Carriage inward 4000
Less closing stock 35,000
Cost of goods sold 139,000
Gross profit 91,000
Net profit 62,00
cost of goods sold = Le 139,000
Gross profit = Le 91,000
Net profit = Le 62,000
Percentage of Gross profit Gross profit/sales * 100/1
91,000/230,000 * 100/1