(1a)Old side = 1:50,000
New side = 1:150,000
Old scale/New scale = 50,000/150,000 = 1/3
This implies that the map will be reduced by 3
Old length = 27cm
New length = 27/3= 9.0cm
Old breadth = 29cm
New breath = 29/3= 9.6cm
(1c) RELIEF AND DRAINAGE OF THE MAPPED AREA
The drainage pattern of the mapped area is dendritic. There is an irregular branching of the tributaries in many directions like the branches of a tree. The south western part of the mapped area is marshy, poorly drained and liable to flooding.
The highest point on the map is on 900ft while the lowest point is on 600ft. There is a pressure of the conical hill on the south western part of the mapped area.
Structural plains: relatively undisturbed horizontal surfaces of the earth. They are structurally depressed areas of the world that make up some of the most extensive natural lowlands on the Earth’s surface.
Erosional plains that have been leveled by various agents of denudation such as running water, rivers, wind and glacier which wear out the rugged surface and smoothens them. Plain resulting from the action of these agents of denudation are called peneplains(almost plain) while plains formed from wind action are called pediplains.
Depositional Plains: formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as rivers, wind, waves, and glaciers. Their fertility and economic relevance depend greatly on the types of sediments that are laid down.
3b) – The growth of industries
– Fertile soil
– Expansion of means of transportation
– Centres of civilizations
-Unloading; This is the release of stress in a rock that produces expansion joints can cause exfoliation. In other words reduction in stress occurs when rocks previously buried deeply are exposed due to erosion of overlying rocks, or when ice sheets that bury rocks melt.
-Exfoliation: This is the term used to describe the peeling away of sheets of rock millimeters to meters in thickness from a rock’s surface due a range of physical and chemical processes during exhumation and weathering.
Action of Plants and animals; can be agents of mechanical weathering. In other words the seed of a tree may sprout in soil that has collected in a cracked rock. As the roots grow, they widen the cracks, eventually breaking the rock into pieces.
(i) Climatic factors
6ai) Hydraulic action process
ii)Abrasion/ Corasion process
iii) Attrition process
6a)i) Hydraulic action process: This process involves air particles finding their way into the cracks of rocks. This then causes air particles to compress which adds pressure, causing rocks to break away and erode.
ii)Abrasion/ Corasion process: Sediment transported by the river is sometimes dragged along the river bed, causing the erosion of the bed.
iii) Attrition process: The velocity of the river causes rocks to collide and break fragments off one another. This causes rocks to become smoother and more rounded. You will find smaller more rounded rocks further downstream as velocity increases.
– oxbow lakes.
Environmental hazard simply refers to disasters which affect lives and properties within environment as a result of the action of man and other natural phenomena
(i)Deforestation exposes the land surface to erosion
(ii)It leads to deterioration of environment
(iii)It increase evaporation and lowers the water table
(iv)It leads to reduction of soil nutrient
(i)Drought threats plant life which leads to crop failure
(ii)It leads to high loss of crops and livestock
(iii)it causes reduction in agricultural productivity
(iv)it causes conflicts between farmers and pastoralists
(v)It can lead to scarcity of food and also lead to desertification
8a. This is a process of converting the geographic features on an analog map into digital format using a digitizing tablet, or digitizer, which is connected to a computer. Features on a paper map are traced with a digitizer puck, a device similar to a mouse, and the x,y coordinates of these features are automatically recorded and stored as spatial data.
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